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The skin consists of two tissue layers. One is a thick, deeper layer of fibers called the cerium. On top of this is a delicate layer of cells called the epidermis. 

The epidermis contains no blood vessels. In fact, it is made up of dead cells. Only the bottom layer of these cells receives nutrition and is alive. These cells are very busy. It is their job to produce cells. The growth of the epidermis takes place as a result of the cells that are being produced by the cells of the deeper layers.



The new cells are pushed upward by the other cells, and  so are removed from sources of nutrition and die. As a result. A chemical change takes place in them and they become a horny material. So the lower half of the epidermis consists of cells that produce cells, the upper half of cells that have died and have been changed into horn.


The top layers of cells are detached at the same rate at which the lower layers produce new cells. So our skin manufactures many billions of new cells daily and sheds as many billions of dead horn cells.

This process goes on without interruption and is why our skin continues to look young year after year. So we do not actually keep the same skin all our life- we are always getting a new skin.



This is also why stains on our skin, such as ink, grease, iodine, tar, or rust, all disappear very soon. The top layer of cells is removed, a new one takes its place. And there are thirty layers of these horn cells, and when one is rubbed off, a new one pushes up from the lowest layer. We can never run out of layers of these cells.

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